This is the localisation, language & ICT profile for Zambia.
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English, as stipulated in the constitution.
Ethnologue notes that: "Bemba is recognized for educational and administrative purposes." and that "Nyanja is] The official language of the police and Zambia regiment. ... the language of education, administration."
Manchisi notes that there are seven languages "recognised as official languages": Kikaonde, Lunda, Luvale, Cinyanja, Cibemba, Citonga, and Silozi . Aménagement notes that these languages may be used orally in government administration (English being used in written form).
Ethnologue lists 41 maternal languages at http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ZM
The Languages of Zambia Home Page lists 70 with an interactive map at http://www.albany.edu/~lb527/LOZ.html
The site L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde has a page on Zambia at http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/afrique/zambie.htm
Five institutions "involved in or responsible for African Language research" in Zambia (UNESCO 1985). Updated information is needed:
English was the only and is still the main language of instruction. Some effort to introduce instruction in or of seven main national languages has been made (Bemba, Kaonde, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja and Tonga), but apparently with few results in the field.
According to an article in SciDev.net, in July 2005 the Basic Education Teachers Union of Zambia (BETUZ) asked that science and math be taught in children's first languages. An alternative link to the article: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AfricanLanguages/message/390
UNDP (2006) gives a literacy figure (without reference to which language[s]) of: 68%
The Latin alphabet is used. This is detailed in the 1977 publication entitled: Zambian Languages: Orthography Approved by the Ministry of Education. (A table from this book is reproduced below)
According to Kashoki et al (1998) the process of arriving at the orthographies for Zambian languages focused on individual languages, not harmonization of transcription across languages. Nevertheless in the end it did achieve a measure of harmonization (i.e., so that letters have the same value in the writing of diverse languages).
A listing of the alphabets of 7 Zambian languages from Zambian Languages (Chimuka 1977):
Apparently there are some books and newspapers in Bemba.
UNESCO (1985) reported the following periodicals (name, frequency of publication, circulation, language). Updated information is needed:
"The majority those using the Internet are the youth and workers. Few people in rural areas have access to the Internet, and those with the inclination must travel to towns and cities to access Internet services. Apart from Internet cafés, offices and learning institutions, a few homes have Internet access. Respondents say inadequate knowledge of the Internet, and prohibitive costs, are among the factors that dissuade some people from using it. Other factors are distance to Internet cafés, access speed and overcrowding in the cafés." (Towards an African e-Index)
"The mission statement for Zambia’s ICT policy is 'to enhance and accelerate sustainable economic growth and social development through the provision of affordable and universally accessible ICTs.'" (Towards an African e-Index)
"Current policy developments in the ICT sector include the preparation of the Cyber Bill, which was approved by Cabinet in 2004 but has not been promulgated. The bill addresses matters pertaining to issues like Internet security, privacy, data protection, digital frauds and hacking controls. The final draft of the national ICT policy has since been produced, spearheaded by the Ministry of Communications and Transport. The draft policy underwent an extensive consultative process and efforts to enact legislation to accommodate the new policy are already under way." (Towards an African e-Index)
The APC page, "ICT Policy in Zambia" has some information and links: http://rights.apc.org/africa/index.shtml?apc=s21819e_1
(See also specific language pages.)
(See also specific language pages.)
APC, "ICT Policy in Zambia," Africa ICT Policy Monitor, http://rights.apc.org/africa/index.shtml?apc=s21819e_1
Bickmore, Lee S., "Languages of Zambia Home Page," http://www.albany.edu/~lb527/LOZ.html
Chimuka, S. S. 1977. Zambian languages : orthography approved by the Ministry of Education. Lusaka: NECZAM
International Telecommunications Union (ITU). 2006. World Information Society Report 2006. Geneva: ITU. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/worldinformationsociety/2006/wisr-web.pdf
______. 2004. African Telecommunication Indicators 2004. Geneva: ITU.
Internet World Stats: Africa. 2006. http://internetworldstats.com/africa.htm
Kashoki, M.E., M.E. Katengo, and M. Mundia. 1998. "Cross-border Language Perspectives: Experiences and Lessons from Zambia Focus on SiLozi." In K. Legère, ed. Cross-border languages : reports and studies, Regional Workshop on Cross-Border Languages, National Institute for Educational Development (NIED), Okahandja, 23-27 September 1996. Windhoek : Gamsberg Macmillan.
Leclerc, Jacques. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Zambie," http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/afrique/zambie.htm
Manchisi, P.C. 2004. "The Status of Indigenous Languages in Institutions of Learning in Zambia: Past, Present, and Future." African Symposium, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 2004 http://www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/aern/manpisi.html
Mulavu, Sikaaba, et al. 2005. "Zambia." In Gillwald, Alison (ed.), Towards an African e-Index: Household and individual ICT Access and Usage Across 10 African Countries. (Research ICT Africa!, http://www.researchictafrica.net/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=504 )
SIL International, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, "Languages of Zambia," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ZM
______, "Bemba," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bem
______, "Nyanja," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=nya
UNDP. 2006. ''Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. Human Development Report 2006.'' New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [Human development index Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older) (HDI) http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/statistics/indicators/3.html ]
UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Africa. 1985. African Community Languages and Their Use in Literacy and Education: A Regional Survey. Dakar: UNESCO.
Vodafone. 2005. "Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones." The Vodafone Policy Paper Series, Number 3, March 2005. http://www.vodafone.com/assets/files/en/GPP%20SIM%20paper.pdf
Wikipedia, "Zambia," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zambia