On this page/Sur cette page... (hide)
Bamanankan, Maninkakan, Mandinka(kan), Julakan, N'Ko...
Manding (also known as Mandekan and Mandingo) belongs to the northern branch of Mande. It represents a collection of mutually intelligible dialects, including Mandinka, Bambara, Dyula, and others. (Webbook)
Another explanation of classification of Manding in the context of Mande or "Mandic" languages is at http://www.langtag.com/?page_id=8
The Manding tongues are sometimes referred to as "Mande core" languages.
Ethnologue gives the following classification for Manding languages (with differing subcategories): Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, ...
For more information on classification and location of Mande languages, see "Mandé Language Family of West Africa: Location and Genetic Classification" by Valentin Vydrine and T. G. Bergman at http://gamma.sil.org/silesr/2000/2000-003/silesr2000-003.htm
A map of where Manding languages are spoken is available at: http://www.sil.org/silesr/2000/2000-003/Manding/Manding.htm
According to figures compiled from Ethnologue:
If 80% of the Malian population (of 10 million) speaks Bambara to one degree or another (as a first or additional language), that would equal 8 million speakers for that country alone.
Bambara is spoken primarily in Mali and also in eastern Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso. Dyula is spoken in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Ghana. Mandinka is spoken in The Gambia and Senegal (where it is often called Malinké in French). Maninka is spoken in Guinea and southwestern Mali (also called Malinké). (Webbook)
SIL International considers "Mandingo" as a "macrolanguage" including Eastern Maninkakan, Konyanka Maninka, Western Maninkakan, Mandinka, Sankaran Maninka, Kita Maninkakan, and Forest Maninka (see below).
A version of Manding based on use of the N'ko script seems to be emerging as a sort of literary standard for at least some Mandephones. It is apparently based mostly on the Maninka and Mandinka varieties of Manding. As of mid-2006 it has an ISO-639-2 language code (see below, 7e).
According to information compiled from Ethnologue these are the Manding tongues:
Manding is a widely spoken first language and lingua franca in the above-mentioned areas. It is broadcast on radio and television (the latter at least in Mali) and appears in some periodicals (such as Kibaru in Mali). (Webbook)
Bamanankan dialects are spoken in varying degrees by 80% of the population in Mali. (Ethnologue)
In Gambia, 50% of Mandinka speakers are literate in the Ajami transcription. (Ethnologue)
The basis of a Romanized Manding orthography was established at the UNESCO expert meeting in Bamako, Mali, in l966. Various governments with Mandephone populations have standardized variants of this orthography (e.g., Senegal in 1975). (Adapted from Webbook)
"Writing was introduced to the Bambara during the French occupation (1880-1960) and Bambara is usually written with the Latin alphabet, though the N'Ko and Arabic alphabets are also used to some extent." (Omniglot)
There are - or at least were not long ago - several points of contention in orthography used for Bambara and Jula (Traoré 1991).
The N'Ko script is especially popular among Maninka speakers in upper Guinea, with about 50 publications, and schools teaching it. (adapted from Ethnologue) It is also used by a growing number in Mali.
The extended characters mentioned above for Bambara are the same as those used in Jula in Burkina Faso, per http://www.abcburkina.net/sedelan/contenu/services/edition.html . They include: ɛ, ɔ, ɲ, ŋ
Alphabets as reported by Hartell (1993) and presented in Systèmes alphabétiques:
8-bit (these fonts are not recommended for creation of new documents or web content):
Several "Pan-Sahelian" layouts at http://www.bisharat.net/A12N/Projects/
A Tavultesoft Keyman keyboard layout for Jula is available for download at http://www.abcburkina.net/sedelan/contenu/services/edition.html
The CNRS/LLACAN "AFRO" Tavultesoft Keyman keyboard (for AZERTY) is intended to support Bambara and Mandinka: http://www.tavultesoft.com/keyman/downloads/keyboards/details.php?KeyboardID=377&FromKeyman=0
Hadamaden josiraw dantigɛkan (Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Bambara): http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/lang/bra.htm
DUNUƝA BƐNMAKAN KA A BƐN (Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Maninka): http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/lang/mni.htm
Some efforts have begun for Bambara and Jula.
The Open Knowledge network has a Bambara version of its project software [seeking more info]. http://www.openknowledge.net/
Since some varieties of Manding are quite close and others somewhat different, it would be helpful to have a clearer idea of what sort of affinities there would be for localisation. For instance, Bambara and Jula may be similar enough for a single software localisation and common development of some kinds of content, but different enough for separate translations of more detailed texts. On the other hand, Mandinka and Maninka might each be different enough from the others to require separate localisation strategies, etc.
The increasing use of N'ko in some areas also needs to be accounted for, not only in localisation but also in developing good transliteration programs to facilitate use of both the Latin-based and N'ko scripts.
Omniglot, "Bambara (Bamanankan)," http://www.omniglot.com/writing/bambara.htm
SIL International, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, "Bamanankan," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bam
______, "Jahanka," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=jad
______, "Jula," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=dyu
______, "Kagoro," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=xkg
______, "Mandinka," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mnk
______, "Maninka, Forest," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=myq
______, "Maninka, Konyanka," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mku
______, "Maninka, Sankaran," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=msc
______, "Maninkakan, Eastern," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=emk
______, "Maninkakan, Kita," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mwk
______, "Maninkakan, Western," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mlq
______, "Wojenaka," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=jod
______, "Worodougou," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=jud
______, "Xaasongaxango," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=kao
SIL International, "ISO 639 Code Tables," http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/codes.asp
______, "ISO 639-3 Macrolangauge Mappings," http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/macrolanguages.asp
Sullivan, Terrence D. 1983 (2004). "A Preliminary Report of Existing Information on the Manding Languages of West Africa." (SIL Electronic Survey Reports) http://www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2004-005
Traoré, Karim (1991) "Problèmes orthographiques de bambara-jula." In N. Cyffer et al, Language Standardization in Africa. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag. Pp. 61-72.
U.S. Library of Congress, "ISO 639.2: Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages: Alpha-3 codes arranged alphabetically by the English name of language," http://www.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/php/English_list.php
Vydrine, Valentin and Bergman, T. G. 2001. "Mandé Language Family of West Africa: Location and Genetic Classification" http://gamma.sil.org/silesr/2000/2000-003/silesr2000-003.htm
Wikipedia, "Manding languages," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manding_languages