This is the localisation, language & ICT profile for Mali.
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French, as stipulated in the constitution.
There are 13 national languages (with legal status as such):
Ethnologue lists a total of 50 languages in Mali at http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ML
Linguistic Groups as Percentages of the Population (Dutcher 2004):
(Languages in bold are national languages per Ethnologue).
The site L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde has a page on Mali at http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/afrique/mali.htm
Three institutions "involved in or responsible for African Language research" in Mali (UNESCO 1985, with modifications). Updated information is needed:
The main language of formal education is French. However there has been increased effort in recent years to develop primary instruction in most of the national languages. It goes under the name of Pedagogie Convergente.
Literacy in national languages has been pursued by various agencies over the years: DNAFLA and then CNR-ENF (see above) and DNEB (Direction Nationale de l’Education de Base)
Dutcher (2004) has a succinct history of the evolution of education and adult education policy.
Before colonisation the Arabic script was used to write indigenous languages (as such the writing is known as Ajami). This continues to some degree. Tifinagh was and is still used by Tamasheq speakers.
Since independence the government opted to use the Latin script with additional modified letters (extended characters) for literacy, education and publication in national languages. A chart showing the extended Latin characters and diacritics used in some Malian languages is available at: http://www.bisharat.net/A12N/MALI-table.htm
The N'Ko script is also used by some, especially for Manding tongues.
A national agency produces a periodical in some national languages.
There are some authors who write and publish in Bambara. Publishers are Jamana, Donniya, Kalan Diya, La Sahélienne, Togouna, Le Figuier, Teriya, Éditions Traoré / La Ruche à Livres, SOMED, EDIS, DNAFLA/ILAB/CNR-ENF.
UNESCO (1985) reported the following periodicals (name, frequency of publication, circulation, language). Updated information is needed:
The publishing house Jamana is editing the newspaper Jekabaara, which is the most widespread newspaper in Bamanankan together with Kibaru
Ouane (1991) describes Mali's attempt to standardise its languages with reference to regional efforts for standardisation of cross-border languages, and the needs of less widely-spoken languages within its borders.
FAO. 2006. "Emissions de radio rurale et jeunes ruraux au Mali: Etude de cas à Bla, Bougouni, Kolondieba, Koutiala." (La communication pour développement. Etude de cas 29)
Mali has an ICT policy.
Agence des technologies de l'information et de la Communication (AGETIC) is the Malian government organ responsible for cocordinating ICT development. See:
An early document on ICT policy: "Séminaire National sur la Mise en Place d'une Stratégie sur les Nouvelles Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication" (octobre 1999) http://www.uneca.org/aisi/nici/Documents/mali-ws-rapport.doc
"Mali's NICI [National Information and Communication Infrastructure] development process was launched with the ECA in May 2002 during the first African Regional Conference for the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). The process was resumed in August 2003, carried out in cooperation with UNDP and finalized in December 2004. The ICT Policy was adopted by the Council of Ministers and a decree was passed to create the "Agence des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (AGETIC)", which has the mandate to implement the NICI plan. The NICI Policy and Plan documents were approved by the Cabinet in June 2005." UNECA/AISI (2006?)
More information relating to Mali's NICI policy process is available at:
The APC page, "ICT Policy in Mali" has some information and links:
Initiatives Mali Gateway "un site dédié à la promotion des initiatives locales de développement du Mali" http://initiatives.net.ml/
WikiEducator has a page on uses of ICT for education at http://www.wikieducator.org/ICT4Africa/Country_Report_Mali
(See also Computers & internet access - Project telecentres, above)
Some governmental sites (French only):
Jekabaara has a site which unfortunately has not been updated since 2005 (http://www.jekabaara.org/)
(See also specific language pages.)
There are apparently some software localisation efforts. Prof. Mamadou Doucouré (alias "V0" (say: V Zéro, nickname); alias author T. Jigifa D.) worked on some programs in Bambara (see article in malian newspaper Les Echos: http://www.malikounda.com/nouvelle_voir.php?idNouvelle=5568 (NOUVELLES TECHNOLOGIES - Les langues nationales sur le Net). There is a nascent effort to translate some software into Songhay.
(See also specific language pages.)
APC, "ICT Policy in Mali," Africa ICT Policy Monitor, http://rights.apc.org/africa/test.shtml?apc=s21831e_1 ("Politiques de TIC en/au Mali," Observatoire des politiques des TIC en Afrique, http://afrique.droits.apc.org/index.shtml?apc=s21831e_1 )
Dutcher, Nadine. 2004. Expanding Educational Opportunity in Linguistically Diverse Societies, 2nd. ed. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. http://www.cal.org/resources/pubs/expand.html
International Telecommunications Union (ITU). 2006. World Information Society Report 2006. Geneva: ITU. http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/publications/worldinformationsociety/2006/wisr-web.pdf
______. 2004. African Telecommunication Indicators 2004. Geneva: ITU.
Internet Systems Consortium (ISC), "Distribution of Top-Level Domain Names by Host Country, Jan 2007" http://www.isc.org/index.pl?/ops/ds/reports/2007-02/dist-bynum.php
Internet World Stats: Africa. 2007. http://internetworldstats.com/africa.htm
Leclerc, Jacques. L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde, "Mali," http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/afrique/mali.htm
Ouane, Adama. 1991. "L'Harmonisation des langues maliènnes entre l'intégration nationale et régionale." In N. Cyffer et al, Language Standardization in Africa. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag. Pp. 73-85.
SIL International, Ethnologue: Languages of the World, "Languages of Mali," http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=ML
UNDP. 2006. ''Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis. Human Development Report 2006.'' New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). [Human development index Adult literacy rate (% ages 15 and older) (HDI) http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/statistics/indicators/3.html ]
UNECA/AISI (2006?) "NICI Country Pages: Mali" http://www.uneca.org/aisi/nici/Mali/mali.htm
UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Africa. 1985. African Community Languages and Their Use in Literacy and Education: A Regional Survey. Dakar: UNESCO.
U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), "The World Factbook: Mali" https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ml.html
Vodafone. 2005. "Africa: The Impact of Mobile Phones." The Vodafone Policy Paper Series, Number 3, March 2005. http://www.vodafone.com/assets/files/en/GPP%20SIM%20paper.pdf
WikiEducator, "ICT4Africa/Country Report Mali," http://www.wikieducator.org/ICT4Africa/Country_Report_Mali
Wikipedia, "Communications in Mali," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications_in_Mali
______, "Languages of Mali," http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Mali
______, "Langues du Mali," http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langues_du_Mali